## ray diagram revision

We’ve reached the Space unit and are almost at the end of the course.  I showed you how to draw ray diagrams when we looked at lenses during the Health Physics unit.  Some people have asked me to repost these video clips as they were not sure how to draw ray diagrams for our telescope this morning.

Watch these clips and make sure you know the six terms we use to describe the image formed by a lens. You should be able to select three words to describe the image in your ray diagram.

The second video looks at a ray diagram when the object is less than one focal length away from the lens.

Once the ray diagram is complete, we need to describe the image that has been formed.  The description must tell us about the size, orientation and type of image that is formed.

Size
If the image is larger then the original object, we say the image is magnified
If the image is smaller than the original object, we say the image is diminished.

Orientation
If the image is the same way up as the object, we describe it is upright.
If the image is upside down compared to the object, we describe it as inverted.

Type
If the object and image are on opposite sides of the lens, it is a real image.
If the object and image are on the same side of the lens, it is a virtual image.

## ray diagram – object further than 2f

This post is for Intermediate 2 only.

The final situation we need to consider is when the object is located more than two focal lengths away from the convex lens.  The diagram is similar to the previous examples but needs additional points marked on the optic axis.

## ray diagram – object closer than 1f

This post is for Standard Grade and Intermediate 2.

Here we consider an object closer than one focal length.  You will see that it is not possible to obtain a real image when the object is this close to the lens.  On a ray diagram, a real image is one that is found on the other side of the lens from the object.

Real images can always be displayed on a screen – a projector in the cinema or classroom produces a real image.  If you are doing an experiment, you can check to see if an image is real using a piece of paper.  Move your sheet of paper closer to and further from the lens – if you can’t get an image to form on the paper then the image must be virtual.  When we look at an object up close through a magnifying glass, we see a virtual image.

## how to draw a ray diagram

If you are sitting Credit Standard Grade or Intermediate 2 you should be able to draw a ray diagram for a convex lens.

At Standard Grade you must be able to draw this diagram for a magnifying glass.  A video for this will be posted shortly.

Intermediate 2 candidates may be asked to draw the diagram for an object placed

• closer than one focal length
• between one and two focal lengths
• more than two focal lengths

from the convex lens.  I will post a video showing each of these three situations.

Let’s start with an introduction to drawing ray diagrams.  This video looks at an object between one and two focal lengths from the lens.  It will show you how to draw the diagram and explain the terms we use to describe the image.

Disclaimer: No rabbits were harmed in the making of this video.